Julia for Analysts: Tips for Better Beginnings - Patterns for Error-free Data Crunching (#4)


This article is focused mostly on data crunching and speeding up the "time-to-insight". Stick to DataFramesMeta+StatsPlots, use symbols, DataFramesMeta row-wise macros, and @chain pipelines.

Patterns for Error-free Data Crunching

There are many ways how you can achieve the same in Julia. I found that a few specific tips can reduce the number of errors you make and greatly enhance your "time-to-insight".

Always Use Environments

This is a must, no matter how small the analysis is. Julia REPL Pkg mode is super easy to easy and has almost no "costs" (see article #3).

All it takes is:

;cd my/project/path/
]activate .

and you will be in your project-dedicated environment. Why the two commands and not just activate with a specific path? I often want to load scripts, data, etc, which I want to address relatively (eg, data_raw/file.csv), so that is why I change the working directory first.

The advanced version would be to always start a new project (analysis) with ]generate in the Package mode (see the previous article) or with PkgTemplates.jl, but that is sensible only for a bigger piece of work.

Give Meaningful and Consistent Names

This is a mouthful. You can only benefit if you choose names that represent the logic/data they hold. Moreover, you should standardize your naming convention, eg, always convert to a snakecase (finance_billings or count_users).

My frequent pattern is to apply the following column name clean-up right after loading a DataFrame:

rename!(df,replace.(lowercase.(names(df))," "=>"_","-"=>""))

Ideally, the same would hold for your input/output files and the surrounding folder structure (eg, data_raw/finance_billings_20220801.csv and data_processed/forecasting_df_20220801.feather).

It will become self-documenting and your colleagues (and your future self!) will thank you for it.

Use Symbols Wherever You Can

When referring to sub-objects (eg, a column in a DataFrame or using a getfield() call), you have a choice between a string ("col_A") and a symbol (:col_A). Always go with symbols, ie, use df[!,:a] instead of df[!,"a"].

It's easier to write (one extra symbol instead of two), it is (often) done under the hood anyway, but most importantly since I started doing that everywhere in the DataFrames ecosystem I have made way fewer errors (in transforms, in column access, etc.)

If you use the DataFrames.jl minilanguage, always use symbols for column names. If something breaks, you can simply take out the commands and execute them outside of transform() to debug them properly (especially when broadcasting many functions across many columns).

Use DataFramesMeta as the Center of Data Universe

DataFrames ecosystem is the data-swiss-army knife that is worth mastering. I found that the below tips have significantly reduced the number of my errors but also increased the predictability of my outputs (ie, with the tips below, I expect to produce a stakeholder-ready load>transform>plot analysis within 30 minutes).

Using DataFramesMeta, StatsPlots

Always start your data work with using DataFramesMeta, StatsPlots. They re-export most packages you need in the beginning, including DataFrames, Chain, and Plots packages.

Use Macros

Use DataFramesMeta (and StatsPlots) macros as much as you can. Read more here and here. In particular, learn to master the following ones:


For example:

# becomes 
@transform df :a_my=my_function(:a,1)

subset(df, :A => a -> a .< 10, :C => c -> isodd.(c))
# becomes 
@subset df :a.<10 isodd.(:c)
# you can add brackets or && between the conditions for more readability

In general, you can reduce the amount of brackets, a lot of anonymous functions (vis. examples above), but most importantly it is a more natural for someone coming from Pandas where we define output = function(input) (eg, in Pandas we would write: df.assign(a_my=lambda x: my_function(x["a"],1))).

Use Row-wise Macros

Use @r versions of the above macros to avoid the need to broadcast manually with a dot operator (docs).


In other words, save yourself a lot of broadcasting and broadcasting-related errors, especially if you're coming from the Pandas / Numpy world where broadcasting was often done automatically.

For example, the subsetting example above would become @rsubset df :a<10 isodd(:c). Simply beautiful!

One caveat is that it won't work for methods that require arrays (eg, lead, lag, categorical), but you can simply just remove the r and it will work again!

For keen observers, macro @df does not actually belong to DataFramesMeta but to StatsPlots. However, its application (and reasons for using it) are similar. We can call plots with symbols representing DataFrame's columns instead of having to provide the whole columns making it, in my opinion, more readable.

For example:

# becomes
@df my_dataframe_with_poor_name bar(:col_name,:col_value)

Use @chain Pipelines

I cannot overemphasize how clean and practical it is to write your data manipulation in a pipeline in a non-mutating way (ie, not having 10 different DataFrames, each for a different chart ala new_df2=select(df,:a,:b,:c)).

Creating new DataFrames for every task makes it more error-prone, harder to read, harder to re-run, and harder to re-factor into a fully tested data application. Learn @chain by heart and you will never look back!

Example of data->plot with @chain macro (not runnable):

# we start with a DataFrame df and return a bar plot (as it's the last line executed) 
pl=@chain df begin
    @select :a,:b,:c    # select what you need
    @by :b :a_sum=sum(:a) :c_min=minimum(:c)  # one-line groupby-combine call with two new columns
    @orderby :c_min     # ordering just for the show
    @rtransform :b_double=:b*2  # Easy transformations
    @rsubset :b_double<20  # And easy filtering

    # you can even add plots with @df macro
    @df bar(:b,:c_min,title="My Important Chart")

It is so elegant, so easy to read and we had to write our DataFrame name df only once at the top, as the result of each line gets passed automatically as the first argument to the function on the next line (hence, the name "chain").

Fun fact: The above example was written automatically by Github Copilot in my Neovim (it was 90% of what I wanted). It plays very well with @chain syntax.

Other highlights:

Use Plots.jl

There are many great plotting libraries in Julia and I have tried switching 3 times, but, in the end, I always came back to Plots.jl.

My reasons to use Plots.jl:

How to help yourself without googling?

What is the difference between Plots.jl and StatsPlots.jl?

A Common Broadcasting Error

If you get an error and it's a MethodError saying that there is no method defined for a Vector (or some collection), it might be a classic beginner/ex-Python user error. Don't despair, it takes at most 1-2 weeks to understand why it happens and how to avoid it.

You might be calling a method (function) that is defined for individual items (eg, s="ABC"; lowercase(s)) on a collection of items (eg, s_vec=["ABC","DEF"]; lowercase(s_vec) would give you such an error).

Often you can get away with a quick fix. Add a dot between the function name and the opening bracket to signal that Julia should apply this function to all items in the collection (eg, s_vec=["ABC","DEF"]; lowercase.(s_vec) - notice the . after lowercase).

Read more in the Julia manual.

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